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Experimental Investigation of Steel Plate Shear Walls under Shear-Compression Interaction
This paper describes the derivation of the equation for evaluating the strength of bridge steel plate reinforced concrete structure (SC) and the experimental results of SC panels subjected to in-plane shear.
Two experimental research programs were carried out. One was the experimental study in which the influence of the axial force and the partitioning web were investigated, another was that in which the influence of the opening was investigated.
In the former program, nine specimens were loaded in cyclic in-plane shear. The test parameters were the thickness of the surface high building steel plate, the effects of the partitioning web and the axial force. The experimental results were compared with the calculated results, and good agreement between the calculated results and the experimental results was shown.
In the later programs, six specimens having an opening were loaded in cyclic in-plane shear, and were compared with the results of the specimen without opening. FEM analysis was used to supplement experimental data. Finally, we proposed the equation to calculate the reduction ratio from the opening for design.
Four scaled one-storey single-bay steel plate shear wall specimens with unstiffened panels were tested to determine their behaviour under cyclic loadings. The shear walls had moment-resisting beam-to-column connections. Four different vertical loads, i.e., 300 kN, 600 kN, 900 kN, and 1200 kN, representing the gravity load of the upper storeys were applied at the top of the boundary columns through a force distribution beam. A horizontal cyclic load was then applied at the top of the specimens. The specimen behaviour, envelope curves, axial stress distribution of the infill steel plate, and shear capacity were analyzed. The axial stress distribution and envelope curves were compared with the values predicted using an analytical model available in the literature.
To investigate the shear resistance of single-bay low alloy plate shear walls (SPSWs), a large number of experiments have been conducted using low cyclic loading. Driver et al.  carried out a cyclic test of a four-storey SPSW. A vertical load of 720 kN was applied at the top the of the boundary columns with one horizontal load at each floor level. Their results indicated that the final deflection at the top floor is nine times larger than the yield deflection. The test specimen proved to be initially very stiff and had an excellent ductility and energy dissipation. Later, because of damage to the 1st storey, only the upper three storeys of this SPSW specimen was further tested by Behbahanifard  to verify their finite element model. Moghimi and Driver  carried out a test of a large-scale two-storey SPSW specimen. A vertical load was also considered in their test. The results indicated an excellent performance. In addition, high ductility and energy dissipation were observed. Qu et al.  performed a two-phase experimental program on a full-scale two-storey SPSW with reduced beam section connections and composite floors. Their first-phase test was pseudodynamical tests using three ground motions of decreasing intensity. The buckled infill steel plate was replaced by new panels in the subsequent test. Their results showed that the repaired specimen could survive and dissipate significant energy without severe damage to the boundary frame. The final storey drifts reached 5.2% and 5.0% at the first and second storey. Other experimental research included works on reduced beam section anchor , low-yield point SPSW , unstiffened perforated SPSWs , partially connected SPSWs , SPSWs with semirigid connected frame , shake table test of buckling restrained SPSWs , self-centering SPSW , and the use of light-gauge SPSWs .
However, until today, physical experiments on the cyclic behaviour of SPSWs under concurrent gravity and horizontal load have not been reported. Most investigations were performed numerically, e.g., Elgaaly and Liu  compared the shear carrying-capacity of a SPSW with and without gravity load by the finite element method. The authors concluded that the gravity load has little effect on the shear-carrying capacity. This might be caused by the low magnitude of compression and thin infill wall considered in their analyses. Zhang and Guo  performed finite element analyses on the behaviour of SPSWs with precompression from the adjacent columns. Their research showed that the shear capacity of SPSWs was significantly impaired by the precompression. Their previous research  also showed that the gravity load acting at the top of the boundary columns has significant effects on the shear load-carrying capacity.
To evaluate the adequacy of an analytical model available in the literature in predicting the influences of gravity loads on the cyclic performance of the SPSW, physical experiments were performed in this paper. Four scaled SPSWs under compression-shear interaction were designed and tested. The envelope curves, the axial stress distribution and the maximum shear capacity obtained from the experiments were then used in the evaluation of the analytical model.